Isagoge: history of logic: Transmission of Greek logic to the Latin West: and of Porphyry of Tyre’s Isagoge (“Introduction,” on Aristotle’s Categories), although. The Isagoge or “Introduction” to Aristotle’s Categories (text) was a the standard textbook on logic for more than a thousand years after his death. The Isagoge or Introduction by Porphyry is a commentary on Aristotle’s Categories, which became a key logical text of the Middle Ages, being.

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Isagoge – Wikipedia

The isagige kinds of virtue are hierarchically ordered so that paradigmatic virtue comprises in some way all the rest paradigmatic virtues are the Platonic Forms, or paradigms, of the different virtues.

Followed by the Organon. Extant though not all complete are: Share your thoughts poprhyry other customers. Articles on Porphyry, Aristotle and logic. There’s a problem loading this menu right now. Porphyry, Introduction or Isagoge to the logical Categories of Aristotle. The earliest known Syriac translation was made in the seventh century by Athanasius of Balad. Of those things however whereof species is predicated, that genus of the species will also be necessarily predicated, also that genus of the genus up to the most generic; for if it is true to say that Socrates is a man, but man an animal, and animal substance, it is also true to say that Socrates is animal and substance.

Belongs to the better family of mss. He may have been Iamblichus’ teacher. For animal is predicated of horse and ox, being species, also of this particular horse and ox, which are individuals, but irrational is predicated of horse and ox, and of particulars.


Syriac is also in unicode, using the Serto Jerusalem font from Beth Mardutho. He may throughout his life have used different styles, perhaps aiming at different readerships, while maintaining somehow both his proneness for religion and porphtry and his rational tendencies.

Genus then, and species, being each of them explained as to what it is, since also genus is one, but species many, for there is always a division of genus into many species, genus indeed is always predicated of species, and all superior of inferior, but species is neither predicated of its proximate genus, nor of those superior, since it does not reciprocate. Though he did not mention the problem further, his formulation constitutes the most influential part of his work, since it was these questions that formed the basis of medieval debates about the status of universals.


The ancient catalogues of those Florence mss claimed the author was Hunayn but this is very unlikely. Wherefore, as four differences of genus with respect to the rest, are assumed, but three of difference, two of species, and one of property with regard to accident, there will be ten differences altogetherof which, four we have already demonstrated, viz.

What remains then, viz. The latter is the most reliable and the most informative source about his life and attitudes. For the most generic is predicated of all the genera, species, and individuals under it, but the genus which is prior to the most specific speciesis predicated of all the most specific species and individuals; but what is species alone of all the individuals of itbut the individual of one particular alone.

As moreover, rational is difference, the use of reason is predicated of it, as of difference, yet the use of reason will not be predicated of rational only, but also of the species under rational.

A very helpful read for understanding distinctions in predication. Porphyry did not share this view. Again, in another way that is denominated genus to which the species is subject, called perhaps from the iisagoge of these; for such a genus is a certain principle of things under it, and seems also to comprehend all porohyry multitude under itself.

Nevertheless, such is not the case, but always those successive being enumerated, and two being deficient by one difference, from having been already assumed, and the three by two differences, the four by three, the five by four; all the differences are ten, namely, four, three, two, one. Now, it is the property of genus to be predicated of more things than difference, species, property, and accident are, for animal is predicated of man and horse, bird and snake, but quadruped of animals alone, which have four feet; again, man of individuals alone, and capacity of neighing of horse alone, and of particulars.

It is common to genus and accident to be predicated, as we have said, of many things, whether they the accidents be separable or inseparable, for to be moved is predicated of many things, and blackness of crows, and of Ethiopians, and of certain inanimate things. The Uses of Argument by Stephen E. Select Works of Porphyry: It is clear that Porphyry was a very learned man. He certainly wrote about it but not, I think, a translation.

The commentary employs a notion of the One as an ineffable first principle that according to Hadot makes it post-Plotinian.

This is especially notable in its claim that particulars are porhyry to universals.


Used as the basis for the Aldine printed text. It follows from this that the task set for human beings is to free themselves from the sensible and live by the intelligible, which after all is their true or real nature.

The first Arabic version appears to be that of Al-Dimashqi. Also it is common to both to be always present, and to every one, for though a biped should be mutilated, yet the term biped is always predicated with reference to what is naturally adapted, since also risible has the “always” from natural adaptation, but not from always laughing.

This theory of virtue is a clever attempt at reconciling the Republicthe Phaedo and the Theaetetus and fitting their teaching about virtue into a coherent Platonic metaphysics. For of predicates some are predicated of one thing alone, as individuals, for instance, “Socrates,” and “this man,” and “this thing;” but others are predicated of many, as genera, species, differences, properties, and accidents, predicated in common, but not peculiarly to any one.

Nevertheless, if when we assign the genus, we make mention of species, saying that which is predicated of many things differing in species, in reply to what a thing is, and call species that which is under the assigned genus, we ought to know that, since genus is the genus of something, and species the species of something, each of each, we must necessarily use both in the definitions of both. I have received an email from Daniel King at Cardiff University, with corrections to this information.

Works and Profile 3. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. Philosophical Views It seems safe to assume that before his encounter with Plotinus, Porphyry’s philosophical views were shaped poephyry Longinus, Numenius and other Middle Platonists, in addition to Plato, Aristotle isgoge other classics of Greek philosophy.

Isayoge latter belong necessarily, and therefore universally, to an essence, whereas the former are those qualities which do not of necessity belong to any essence, but are mere contingencies.

The other 2 Florence mss mentioned are both copies of Athanasius of Balad’s translation. Ships from and sold by Amazon. There was a problem filtering reviews right now.

The Elements of Isahoge These texts served as a basic introductory texts in philosophy for at least years.