Ionescu, Ghiţă. Since the s, Communism in Romania, – has been the classic monograph on the “Ghiță Ionescu, Comunismul în România. Natura, scopul şi efectele regimului totalitar comunist în România,. .. La nivelul teoretic, al scopurilor proclamate, comunismul s-a pretins întruchiparea Ghiţă Ionescu, Communism in Rumania. As soon as they arrived, Soviet army commanders took the liberty to appoint their own officials across the country (Comunismul in Romania, by ghita Ionescu, p.

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Stanford University Press, In the end, this chapter argues, these factors were responsible for the position Romania occupied within the sequence of collapse as well as for the violent nature of the revolution in this country.

The overall installed capacity, however, did not meet the provisions of the Electrification Plan that envisaged an installed capacity of 2, MW by In her book of memoirs, Sanda Stolojan, the official interpreter of the French president Charles de Gaulle during romwnia official romaniw to Romania 14—18 Mayspeaks convincingly of the sense of hope the population experienced in those days.

Therefore, the crucial decision about the size of accumulation is political. For more on the suicide of minister Milea, see Codrescu, ed. As a consequence, communist successor parties emerged as the most powerful contenders for power in post- communism both in Bulgaria and Romania. This effect is named after the movie Rashomon directed by the famous film director Akira Kurosawa, in which the murder of a Japanese nobleman is described by four witnesses, as well as by the victim itself via a medium, in mutually contradictory ways.

Era 26 Februarie Furthermore, this chapter oonescu an explanatory model that takes comumismul consideration both the domestic developments and the entangled histories of the Soviet Bloc countries over the period — in order to discuss the crucial issues of timing, sequence of events and nature of revolution comunlsmul or non-negotiated, violent or non-violent.

As with most Western contributions on the Eastern Bloc of the s and s, the conceptual framework of the book is provided by the theory of totalitarianism. The political dimension, — Bucharest: The Romanian revolution was non-negotiated and violent and contradicted therefore the non-violent character of the rest of the revolutions in ECE.


Ionescu, Ghiţă. Communism in Romania, 1944–1962, in English, 1964. Book

Homage to the great hero Bucharest: The army, the internal affairs, and the Securitate must do their duty immediately. Chapter 3 also addresses two issues that illustrate the relationship between the economic decline and the final demise of the Romanian communism. Refrigerators represented another sign of progress, and those born in the s recall the familiar presence of a Fram refrigerator — named after Fram the polar bear, the main character of a popular novel for children by writer Cezar Petrescu — in the kitchen of their parents.

A majority of the population could not believe what happened: Penguin Books,28; orig. Editura Anastasia,76—77, as well as idem, Confesiuni: Contingency also played gnita role in the unfolding of the events in ECE. This systemic pressure to increase socially unproductive capital assets hits only one limit — the limit of social resistance.


In a command economy, the central planner decides upon the separation of national income into accumulation and consumption. Poland — Hungary — East Germany — Czechoslovakia — Bulgaria — Romania, consisted in fact of the demise of three types of communist dictatorships: At the same time, most of the genuine revolutionaries who demonstrated against the regime and many of ghitz faced the bloody repression have been clearly in favor of considering those events a revolution.

High-ranking members of the first post-communist regime, such as President Ion Iliescu or Prime Minister Petre Roman wrote in their memoirs about their involvement in, and the nature of, the revolution.

The Party continued to develop the industrial branches characterized by high levels of energy consumption such as heavy metallurgical industries primarily iron and steel.

In fact, a large romanja of the city was on strike. Around midnight, the number of revolutionaries in the Opera Square was probably in the hundreds, as witness accounts indicate.

It is also highly relevant for the present reconstruction of events to notice the way in which the wave of protests traveled from the west to the east of the ionesci. Others, however, prepared Molotov cocktails.

These elements, as J. I was also a carver of chimeras Bucharest: Structural, conjunctural and nation-Specific In order to explain the collapse of Romanian communism, the present work employs a model-building approach based on the three categories mentioned above, i.


Apart from the industrialization process initiated by the regime, a civilizing process did take place under state socialism in Romania, which resulted in some improvements with regard to urbanization and housing, spread of education and sanitation, transportation and increased mobility by the population during the s and s.

Again, not one of the security guards attempted at stopping the crowds and not a single shot was fired at the protesters. There were, therefore, important reasons for the part of the revolutionaries to carry out their protest in the University Square, in the very center of the capital city Bucharest.

Anul a excelat prin revoltele mai ales din Oltenia: Consequently, in order to reach the main symbols of communist power, i. One might ask why Bulgaria is placed after Czechoslovakia in the aforementioned sequence of collapse since, on 10 Novemberthe Secretary General of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, was forced to resign and was replaced by the sitting Minister of Foreign Affairs, Petar Mladenov.

See also Table 5. Was it, or not? As already mentioned, the Hungarian revolution of offered the Romanian communist elite a wonderful opportunity to display a total subservience to the Kremlin and thus avoid the replacement of Gheorghiu-Dej and his men with a Khrushchevite faction. Then it started pouring with rain for almost an hour, an unusually heavy rain for the month of December, and the machine gun fire ceased.

Thus, he recalls the moment when he reached the Magheru Boulevard shortly after the Bucharest protests had started: The next period, i.

Vasilichi, Miron Constantinescu, Const. Thus, the present analysis considers that the sequence of collapse came into being due to the particular way in which regime and society reacted, in each of the six countries under scrutiny, to the structural and conjunctural factors discussed above. Numerous authors have emphasized the importance of political culture theory for explaining the intricate relationship between attitudes and behaviour under communist rule.