classification of fractures of mandible, fractures of midface, fractures of zygomaticomaxillary complex, fractures of NOE (facial fractures). Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as a tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems. ZMC complex fracture. Tripod fx Right zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture with disruption of the lateral orbital wall, orbital floor, zygomatic arch and maxillary sinus. The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, also known as a quadripod fracture, quadramalar Classification. D · ICD .

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Existing classification systems concentrate either to the degree of fragmentation and avulsion of the medial canthal ligament 8 or to the topographic extension isolated NOE vs.

Rules for coding the fracture location and the morphologic variables are established. Individual teeth or teeth groups are often acronymed: Right zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture with disruption of the lateral fraactures wall, orbital floor, zygomatic arch and maxillary sinus.

Palate The palatal shelves consist of the premaxilla, the palatine processes of the maxilla, and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. The difficulty in developing a standardized instrument for qualifying or, in particular, quantifying displacement in the midface needs apprehension and admittedly requires ongoing efforts in the future because it is resolved here in a rudimentary style only.

Li K K, Stephens W. Dingman R O, Natvig P.

Classification and treatment of zygomatic fractures: a review of 1, cases.

The zygoma and its anatomical subregions constitute the lateral midface attached to each side of the maxillary portions of the central midface pyramid in transition to the greater sphenoid wing, the frontal bone, and the temporal bone. Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: Tooth avulsion, tooth loss, or missing teeth can be easily recognized, as radiographs show an empty socket.

As the antral walls are a principal part of the ICM, the mzc morphology features can be accessed through the ICM pull-down menus in the respective skull views.

Color coding of a subregion, blue denotes the presence of a fracture without any further differentiation, yellow stands for nonfragmented, nondisplaced, orange is the equivalent for fragmented, a gray crosshatching points out a bone loss.


Various terminology, such as frontobasal, frontofacial, frontal sinus, frontocranial fractures, and according classifications are in common use for a topographical assignment. Fujii N, Yamashiro Frachures. The fossa of the temporomandibular joint mandibular fossa is incorporated into the temporal origin of the xmc arch subregion ID 1.

There are several classification proposals in prosthetic dentistry and implantology to quantify the degree of atrophy in edentulous jaws. To determine the degree of tooth loosening fracfures to trauma of the periodontal supporting structures by indirect radiographic criteria is likely to be more erroneous than by simple clinical testing.

To account for a more selective analysis of the individual patient’s pretrauma condition, the dentition and the degree of atrophy in the maxillary processes in case of partial or total edentulism are recorded.

Trimalleolar fracture Bimalleolar fracture Pott’s fracture. About Blog Go ad-free. No retrodisplacement of both maxillae, no displacement of the Le Fort I and III fragments left, multifragmentation og antral wall right, minor displacement of frontonasal fragment right.

Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture

The topography of the different midface regions central midface—upper central midface, intermediate central midface, lower central midface—incorporating the naso-orbito-ethmoid region; lateral midface—zygoma and zygomatic arch, palate is subdivided in much greater detail than in level 2 going beyond the Le Fort fracture types and its analogs. Fractures of the central midface encompass all fractures located between the nasofrontal suture line and the maxillary alveolar processes with the exception of the zygomas.

Involvement of midface and craniofacial transition as a consequence of fractures extending into the superomedial quadrants of the orbital rim – this is indicated by the marking of the entire frontal bone area.

Surgery of Facial Fractures; pp. Outcomes of severely comminuted type III nasoorbitoethmoid fractures. Asymmetric Le Fort Level midface fracture. Experimental study of fractures of the upper jaw. As they represent the retrotuberic continuation of the maxilla ffractures relevant pillars classlfication the system of vertical buttresses, they are linked to the ICM and LCM. The authors are grateful to all surgeons, as listed in the introduction paper of this series, 1 who participated in the successive classification sessions and provided their fruitful support in the development and validation of this mandibular fracture classification system.


Otolaryngologic clinics of North America. Radiographs show an empty socket. To carry out extrapolations on the trauma, severity necessitates retraceable correlations to a multitude of variables and factors such as bone quantity and quality, associated soft-tissue damage, functional impairment, age, physical or psychic comorbidities, quality-of-life issues and social reintegration, what imposes claszification constraints to a simple data acquisition, and reproducible documentation.

The zygomaticosphenoid suture ZSS line labeled as subregion ID 7 abuts the posterior margin of the lateral orbital classificatiin of the zygoma to the anterior edge of the greater wing of the sphenoid.

Contrary to fractures in the mandible, it is not documented if a fracture line is contiguous between two involved subdivisions. The paired zygomas each have two attachments to the cranium, and two attachments to the maxillamaking up the orbital floors and lateral walls.

Fragmentation occurs in an abundant variety depending on the distribution, number, and size of fragments. Traumatic bone loss, also referred to as bone defect dapplies zc deficits ranging from small fragments to large sections.

These complexes are referred to as the zygomaticomaxillary complex. It is easy to plot common fracture entities, such as nasal and naso-orbito-ethmoid, and their variants due to the refined structural layout of the subregions. The exact course of the ov fracture lines comprising the involved teeth, however—directly through the tooth sockets, through the adjacent periodontal ligaments, or the bony interdental spaces—may differ on either side of the block-shaped alveolar fragment and is not specified in detail.

Support Center Support Center. A classification of injuries of the nasal skeleton. Basilar skull fracture Blowout fracture Mandibular fracture Nasal fracture Le Fort fracture of skull Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture Zygoma fracture.

Although Le Fort and many of feactures successors e. Traditional nasal fracture classifications employ the direction frontal vs.