Austempered ductile iron castings, (or ADI castings) are ductile iron castings processed by a special heat treatment. The austempering process results in ductile. Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) represents an alternative solution for the manufacturing of the housing of small planetary gearboxes, with the gear teeth obtained. Heat treated Ductile Iron with austenitic-ferritic matrix (ADI) has a high potential for the substitution of forged steel and conventional Ductile Iron. Advantages of.

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Railroad The railroad industry uses ADI for suspension housings, top caps and friction wedges, track plates, repair vehicle wheels, nipper hooks, and car wheels. The decision came after nine years of development work and six years of field testing. As the bulk hardness of ADI is reduced by the austempering temperature, the amount of stabilized austenite increases see Figure 4.

Austempering Heat Treatment for Superior Ductility in Steel Components Austempering is a process for steel components which yields a bainitic microstructure. This section may be weighted too heavily toward only one aspect of its cuctile. Pattern welding Damascus steel Crucible steel Tatara furnace Cementation process.

In addition, ADI offers exceptional wear resistance and fatigue strength. Manganese Manganese can be both a beneficial and a harmful element. Where valid comparisons exist, the toughness of ADI is much greater than that of conventional Ductile Iron and equivalent or superior to competitive cast and forged steels, and.

A lighter finished part reduces freight charges and the streamlined production flow often reduces lead time. This increase in surface hardness, and its relationship to austtempering, are responsible for the reduced sensitivity of abrasion resistance to hardness.

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Both microstructures may also be produced via other methods. Generally, ADI will outwear competitive materials at a given hardness level.

As the parts are quenched in a molten salt bath, the difference in temperature between the work piece and the quench bath is lower as compared to oil quenching. When subjected to surface treatments such as rolling, peening or machining after heat treatment, the fatigue strength of ADI is increased significantly.


This allows for faster machine feeds and speeds and greatly increased tool life. As the specific power requirements for automotive engines are increased, ADI will become a more viable alternative to the heavier, more expensive forged steel crankshaft.

At F C as much as four hours may be required to produce the optimum properties; Figure 4.

This property, shown in Figures 4. The casting must be heat treated properly by a supplier capable of taking into account the interaction between casting dimensions, composition, microstructure and the desired properties in the austempered casting. The most common practice is to quench into a bath of liquid nitrite-nitrate salt and hold in the bath. The result of this transformation is a significant increase in surface hardness shown in Figure 4.

Compared to a standard quench and temper process, the austempering forging heat treatment is superior in terms of ductility and distortion. One of the first uses of austempered steel was in rifle bolts during World War II. As discussed in a later section on surface deformation treatments of gears, the processing of ADI aistempering should could follow one of several paths, Figure 4. Because of the restricted temperature irron for processing it is not usually possible to quench in water or brine, but high temperature oils are used for a narrow temperature range.

Such treatments could include conventional machining operations such as turning, grinding, milling, hobbing or special treatments such as shot peening or surface rolling. Hymi Kymmene Engineering, Finland. Long slender parts or steel components that are thin in the cross section are excellent candidates for austempering.

A typical iron composition and control range that can be used is shown below: Shot peening offers a controllable means of selectively hardening certain parts of a finished casting to produce significant improvements in fatigue properties. The mass of the load relative to the quench bath. The best results are achieved when austenitization is long enough to produce a fully austenitic metal microstructure there will still be graphite present in cast irons with a consistent carbon content.


There are many such savings possible in the specific case of converting a quench and tempered steel component to austempered ductile iron ADI. These elements have only marginal effect on the mechanical properties of ADI that is properly austempered. It may be applied to numerous materials, and each combination has its own advantages, which are listed below. The austenitizing may be accomplished by using a high temperature salt bath, an atmosphere furnace or in special cases a localized method such as flame or induction heating.

Ductile Iron Data – Section 4

ADI crawler type track shoe. This ausferrite may resemble bainite metallographically, however it is not because it contains few or none of the fine carbides characteristic in bainite. Engines being developed by the automotive industry require weight reduction in parts that will be required to handle increased power.

To this point we have discussed fatigue strength in terms that assume infinite life below a certain load.

The presence of austenite in ADI also leads to a harmful misconception. It concluded that while a standard notched Charpy test indicated that the properties of ADI were inferior to those of steel, fracture toughness tests indicate “a much less significant difference”. Silicon Silicon is one of the most important elements in ADI because it promotes graphite formation, decreases the solubility of carbon in austenite, increases the eutectoid temperature, and inhibits the formation of bainitic carbide.

The maximum section size and type of casting being quenched.

Kurkinen, “Wear-resistant components in nodular cast iron. Parts processed to the higher strength grades should receive the following processing sequence: Even so, ADI has excellent fracture toughness and fatigue strength.